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Saturday, October 21

  1. page Acqua Paolo and Il Fontanone edited Acqua Acqua Paolo and Il FontanoneRome's Fontanone Rome's Forgetten Aqueduct tprusa20 Sep…
    Acqua
    Acqua
    Paolo and Il FontanoneRome'sFontanone
    Rome's
    Forgetten Aqueduct
    tprusa20 Sep 29, 2017
    1. Introduction
    Water: the source of life. The Roman Empire: arguably the greatest civilization the world has ever seen. In the modern era, the two are intertwined. It is impossible to mention the Roman Empire, and in particular Rome, the historic capital, without mentioning water, and with water, aqueducts.
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    in the Mediterranean, seeMediterranean (see Figure 1.1). But perhaps
    {all_roman_aqueduct_sites.png} Figure 1: Map of all known Roman aqueducts (Romaq)
    This paper focuses not on the grand scale of aqueducts as a technology, though, or on their impact on the Roman Empire, but on a single aqueduct and its often-forgotten story. To begin, we need to focus on the capital of the Empire, Rome itself.
    2. Background
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    the city. See Figure 2 forshows a map
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    Figure 3 forshows a topographical
    {ancient_aqueducts_aicher.jpg} Figure 2: Routes of the 11 historic aqueducts of Rome (Aicher, 1995)
    {rome_topography.jpg} Figure 3: Topographical map of Rome. Click to interact (topographic-map.com)
    While it may seem trivial at times today, it’s important to remember water use in ancient Rome was not drastically different from today. With a non-standardized flow measurement, the Roman quinaria, exact consumption is tough to compare, though. As aqueducts allowed for a municipal water system, Romans used water for domestic purposes, agriculture, and industry. While Roman homes with individual connections were an anomaly, rather than the standard today, new water-intensive industries such as mechanized mining and power generation didn’t exist, and agricultural irrigation has advanced considerably, per capita water usage was likely similar to today (Kosonen, 2017).
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    eastern United States, seeStates: Table 1 summarizes this anaylsis (Morgan, 1902).
    Beyond the quinaria and the precision with which we know historic population data, Morgan's largest doubts come from the lack of expansion in Rome's water supply as it's population peaked around 100 A.D. Part of this skepticism comes from Morgan and other scholars incomplete understanding of the total number of historic aqueducts serving the city. While relying on Frontius, Morgan and others at the time missed the construction of two poorly documented, final aqueducts after Frontius compiled his Da Aqueductu that continued to expand the city's water supply into the third century A.D. One of these "forgotten" aqueducts from after Frontius' writing was the Aqua Traiana, later the Acqua Paolo, that serves as our focus today.
    Table 1: Municipal level average daily consumption in 1901 (Morgan, 1992)
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    Aside from allowing increased domestic use, the repair of historic aqueducts allowed for increased water security for the city and the development of water related public works. Public works, heavily tied to domestic use due to public distribution through fountains, allowed water distribution to become a symbol of prestige, wealth, and power and motivated the renovation and extension of old aqueducts in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Rinne, 2010). Led by the resurgent Catholic church in Rome, what may have began as a desire to leave a mark on the city landscape, resulted in an abundant, revitalized city water supply in the early 1600s that sets the stage for our lost aqueduct of Rome.
    3. Acqua Paolo
    AcquaIt should be noted much of the research regarding Aqua Paolo and it's construction comes from Katherine Rhinne's exhaustive "Waters of Rome" project that she has turned into both a book, "The Waters of Rome: Aqueducts, Fountains, and the birth of the Baroque City", and an interactive site where she has compiled numerous invaluable sources for this paper. The following section would have been impossible to compile without her research. The historical narrative of Acqua Paolo comes from Rhinne's work unless otherwise noted.
    Acqua
    Paolo was
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    broken city. AmongAlong with revitalizing the
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    water infrastructure work andwork. He began his
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    throughout the city (Rhinne, 2010).city. Best known
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    in church squares, seesquares (see Figure 4.4).
    {aqua_felice_expansions.jpg} Figure 4: Expansions of Acqua Felice (Rinne, 2010)
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    Trastevere with water, seewater (see Figure 5.5). While primarily
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    supplying major Cardinals,Cardinals beneath him, including his
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    Scipione Borghese, beneath him with water
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    of the Vatican (Rinne, 2010).Vatican.
    {vatican_borgo_travestere.png} Figure 5: Initial Acqua Paolo Distribution System (Rinne, 2010)
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    the area. SeeFigure 6 shows a snapshot in Figure 6 of the
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    city in 1600 ("Aquae Urbis Romae").1600. Trastevere (literally,
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    Figure 4 iswas one of
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    its water supplies (Rinne, 2010).supplies.
    {rome_water_infrastructure_1600.jpg} Figure 6: Roman Water Infrastructure in 1600. Click to interact ("Aquae Urbis Romae")
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    in St. Peter’s,Peter’s Square, but Pope
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    from the Tiber (Rinne, 2010).Tiber.
    Lastly, Janiculum
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    up the hill (Rinne, 2010).hill.
    By supporting the development of water infrastructure in the city of Rome, Pope Paul V not only cemented his legacy as a builder, but contribued to the physical form of the city. In particular, his "new" water sources revived the Travestere neighborhood by supporting the port, Ripa Grande, and grain mills on Janiculum Hill (Aicher, 1995). In addition to a major fountain in Il Fontanone, Pope Paul V also planned a straight, central street running from Il Fontanone to Ponte Sisto at the Tiber (Heilmann, 1970). While the technical difficulties of managing Il Fontanone alone ensured it never became reality, the Acqua Paolo distribution lines influenced the development of Travestere industries well into the next century. At first by powering grain mills on the slopes of the Janiculum and later moving the Port of Ripa to Travestere, Acqua Paolo water determined where and how industries, fountains, and the neighborhood itself could be built (Heilmann, 1970).
    3.1 Construction
    -crew teams, financing, operations (DBOT?)-
    Initial scouting for suitable sources for Acqua Paolo began in 1605 at the start of Pope Paul V’s papacy. While there is some debate over when he began looking to build a then third aqueduct for the city, the lengthy timeline required for such a project, as well as the pressing water situation at the Borgo, suggests preliminary work for the aqueduct began when he took office (Freiburg, 1991). Some scholars claim surveying and scouting only began after the more shovel-ready work of extending the Acqua Felice was completed in 1608.
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    across southern Italy (Rinne, 2010).Italy. As the
    3.2 Engineering Analysis
    -flow, head loss, retention time and impact of later renovations on water quality, maintenance cycles, castellums-
    (view changes)
    6:23 pm

Wednesday, October 18

  1. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added these graphics aren't very good. Too small to really see. Find bigger, better ones. They do exist o…
    comment added
    these graphics aren't very good. Too small to really see. Find bigger, better ones. They do exist on the web.
    7:06 pm
  2. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added when writing/speaking about this, "design" should come first since that's what is done fi…
    comment added
    when writing/speaking about this, "design" should come first since that's what is done first.
    7:06 pm
  3. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added picture?
    comment added
    picture?
    7:06 pm
  4. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added This idea and related ones are worth a section on road funding. How were they funded? I have an…
    comment added
    This idea and related ones are worth a section on road funding. How were they funded?

    I have another resource in my office if you care to stop by.
    7:06 pm
  5. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added what is the point of this section. Why not describe how the roads were built/designed and then give…
    comment added
    what is the point of this section. Why not describe how the roads were built/designed and then give a couple of examples?
    7:06 pm
  6. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added Was it? Did others go study it and build similarly? Or was it the way Romans built this kind of roa…
    comment added
    Was it? Did others go study it and build similarly? Or was it the way Romans built this kind of road?
    7:06 pm
  7. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added the whole thing, built in one year?
    comment added
    the whole thing, built in one year?
    7:06 pm
  8. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added How do you know? Citation? Be careful of writing that things were FIRST, or the exact date when…
    comment added
    How do you know? Citation?

    Be careful of writing that things were FIRST, or the exact date when some general movement was started. Someone will always find an exception that proves you wrong. Why not say the Via Appia Antica is probably the most famous early Roman road of this type.
    7:06 pm
  9. comment Ancient Roman roads and their influence in modern road designs comment added So how often do we see roads that look like Via Appia Antica vs. just a dirt road? Acutally, Romans…
    comment added
    So how often do we see roads that look like Via Appia Antica vs. just a dirt road? Acutally, Romans built lots of great dirt roads that are pretty much all gone now. What we tend to SEE NOW, are the big, massively paved roads of old Rome. That, and the ROUTES of many other roads still survive and are used.
    7:06 pm

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