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Thursday, March 1

  1. page The Future of the Tiber River edited ... comment-619296023_1-opencomment-619296023_1-close {IMG_3461.jpg} Figure 1: The Tiber River a…
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    comment-619296023_1-opencomment-619296023_1-close
    {IMG_3461.jpg} Figure 1: The Tiber River at sunset
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    have been athe best solution at
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    river every day,day without giving
    ...
    decrepit, inviting mostly unfavorable characters to its banks and not much else.banks. In this
    Brief History
    Rivers and major cities have often gone hand in hand. A water source is the lifeblood of major civilizations. From Mesopotamia to Egypt to Rome, cities are dependent on their rivers. The Tiber River has always been of great historical importance for Rome since comment-619296023_4-openits legendary founding in 753 BCcomment-619296023_4-close. In ancient Rome it was militarily significant during the Punic Wars when Ostia was used as a naval base. It has also been used as a highway of sorts for trade to the Mediterranean over the years. Throughout ancient times the Tiber continuously overflowed comment-619296023_5-openonto comment-619296023_5-closeits banks and flooded the city. While the Tiber has affected Rome for over a thousand years, the last hundred have differed drastically. This is because of the construction of 40 foot high, travertine walls that comment-619296023_6-openhold back the river waters of the Tiber from the city of Rome. Today the river is isolated from the city because of these walls, resulting in a myriad of problems.
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  2. page The Future of the Tiber River edited ... -Lauren Feldmann comment-620223833_12-openIntroductioncomment-620223833_12-close comment-6…
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    -Lauren Feldmann
    comment-620223833_12-openIntroductioncomment-620223833_12-close
    comment-619296023_1-open {IMG_3461.jpg}comment-619296023_1-opencomment-619296023_1-close
    {IMG_3461.jpg}
    Figure 1:
    ...
    River at sunsetcomment-619296023_1-closeWhensunset
    When
    one thinks
    Brief History
    Rivers and major cities have often gone hand in hand. A water source is the lifeblood of major civilizations. From Mesopotamia to Egypt to Rome, cities are dependent on their rivers. The Tiber River has always been of great historical importance for Rome since comment-619296023_4-openits legendary founding in 753 BCcomment-619296023_4-close. In ancient Rome it was militarily significant during the Punic Wars when Ostia was used as a naval base. It has also been used as a highway of sorts for trade to the Mediterranean over the years. Throughout ancient times the Tiber continuously overflowed comment-619296023_5-openonto comment-619296023_5-closeits banks and flooded the city. While the Tiber has affected Rome for over a thousand years, the last hundred have differed drastically. This is because of the construction of 40 foot high, travertine walls that comment-619296023_6-openhold back the river waters of the Tiber from the city of Rome. Today the river is isolated from the city because of these walls, resulting in a myriad of problems.
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  3. page The Future of the Tiber River edited -Lauren Feldmann Introduction {IMG_3461.jpg} comment-620223833_12-openIntroductioncomment-6…

    -Lauren Feldmann
    Introduction
    {IMG_3461.jpg}
    comment-620223833_12-openIntroductioncomment-620223833_12-close
    comment-619296023_1-open {IMG_3461.jpg}
    Figure 1:
    ...
    River at sunsetWhensunsetcomment-619296023_1-closeWhen one thinks
    ...
    Due to acomment-619296023_2-opena millennia ofcomment-619296023_2-closeof uncontrollable flooding,
    ...
    In this article Icomment-619296023_3-openarticle comment-619296023_3-closeI will discuss
    Brief History
    ...
    Rome since itscomment-619296023_4-openits legendary founding in 753 BC.BCcomment-619296023_4-close. In ancient
    ...
    continuously overflowed onto itscomment-619296023_5-openonto comment-619296023_5-closeits banks and
    ...
    walls that holdcomment-619296023_6-openhold back the
    The Problems With the Tiber Today
    Pollution
    {Picture1.jpg} Figure 2: Trash piled up along the Tiber
    ...
    (Rankin, 2015). Accordingcomment-619296023_9-openAccording to a
    ...
    is legally allowed.allowedcomment-619296023_9-close. However, this
    ...
    Rome’s sewer systems,systemscomment-619296023_10-open, nor has
    A Study on the Tiber River Quality in the Stretch of a Sewage Treatment Plant
    Acomment-619296023_11-openA 2006 study
    The results of the exposure to river water showed significant reduction of survival for the Daphnia, especially upstream in the spring and summer. 55% of juvenile Daphnia died after 24 hours of exposure to the water upstream of the sewage treatment plant, while water from the outfall of the sewage treatment plant caused 100% death of daphnia. After 72 hours these numbers increased as shown below (Mancini, 2006).
    {Screen Shot 2017-09-16 at 1.21.11 PM.png} Figure 3: Tiber River map of the sampling area
    {Screencomment-619296023_13-open {Screen Shot 2017-09-28
    ...
    Tiber River WaterWatercomment-619296023_13-close
    The test of disinfectants on the Daphnia resulted in ClO2, NaClO, and PAA all causing 100% death/immobilization in juvenile Daphia (Mancini, 2006). This confirmed the role of disinfectants, especially during the summer, in contributing to river water toxicity.
    This study demonstrates how modern measures being used to treat waste that enters the Tiber are not nearly effective enough. Not only is the waste full of bacteria, but the disinfectants used to treat that bacteria are extremely harmful as well. In order for the Tiber to become a usable river for the public and livable for wildlife, measures must be taken to remedy this.
    ...
    A flood itself is defined to be a streamflow of water that exceeds the banks of a river. When rain falls on land, part of it evaporates into the air, while the rest is absorbed into the soil. At a certain point, the soil becomes saturated with water and cannot absorb anymore. Additional rain then becomes surface run off, which flows into streams and rivers. Once the water level of the rivers reaches the banks, a flood occurs. While very severe flooding can be caused by intense environmental events, such as a monsoon or a hurricane, the floods of the Tiber are generally caused by a milder combination of factors. Usually 90 days before a big flood Rome receives continuous rain which saturates the soil over this time. This is then followed by several days of heavy rain which produce run off into the river, eventually resulting in a flood (Aldrete, 2007).
    {Screen Shot 2017-09-28 at 11.01.34 PM.png} Figure 5: Flood marker located on the church of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva marking the flood of 1530, the second highest recorded flood
    ...
    not being
    extremely
    extremely long and
    Month
    Meters Above Sea Level
    ...
    December
    7.17
    ...
    and drawbacks. OneOcomment-620223833_1-openne has to
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    it is today.todaycomment-620223833_1-close.
    Travertine Embankments
    By the 19th century, 2500 years of flooding had begun to wear the Romans down. One of the breaking points was the flood of 1870. This flood came at an inopportune time for Italy, as it had just formally been proclaimed a country and named Rome as its capital. The flood was the worst Rome had seen in over 200 years with waters up to 17.22 meters above sea level, leaving the city in disarray. This was particularly embarrassing for Italy as the public eye was upon Rome as the new capital of the unified Italian state. The first king of Italy, King Vittorio Emanuele II, entered the capital city on December of 1870 to sloshing floodwaters, stinking mud, and much of the city unable to cope with the disaster. Immediately after his unceremonious entrance, a commission was created to keep Rome safe from the flooding Tiber (Aldrete, 2007).
    {pontesisto.jpg} Figure 6: Depiction of Tiber River Before Embankments
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    embankments, or muraglioni (walls),comment-619296023_14-openmuraglioni (walls)comment-619296023_14-close, we see
    ...
    abandoned wasteland. Thecomment-619296023_15-openThe Tiber used
    ...
    changing that atmosphere.atmospherecomment-619296023_15-close. Another disadvantage
    {02_wk-day-2-LR-def.jpg} Figure 7: Travertine Walls on the Tiber River Today
    Bureaucracy in Rome
    One of the major problems that affect the Tiber River is the massive amount of effort it takes to overcome the bureaucratic institutions that control it. The Tiber is a sort of administration no man’s land. Many different rules and regulations controlled by government agencies prevent people from easily making positive changes, even like simple clean-up projects. In order to do anything new with the Tiber, multiple bureaucratic institutions must be contacted. These institutions range from The Regione Lazio, one of the twenty regions in Italy responsible for the river and its banks, Autorita di Bacino del Fiume Tevere, which is the organization meant to be most responsible for drafting an environmental plan for the river, Protezione Civile, an organization that deals with hydraulic emergencies for the river, and La Polizia Fluviale which sends boats up and down stream to check water levels and embankment conditions. On top of all these organization, any intervention on the river entails multiple commissioners to be called in to express their opinions (Rankin, 2015).
    Kristincomment-620223833_2-openKristin Jones, an
    {http://www.andrewginzel.com/kristin-jones/wp-content/uploads/2005/01/7_Front.jpg} Figure 8: Kristin Jones "She-Wolves" Project
    Solutionscomment-620223833_5-openSolutions for the
    Flood Predictions
    Throughout the years, studies have been undertaken to make more accurate predictions about the flooding of the Tiber in hopes that this will help Rome better understand its river and how to best live with it. In 2007 a study was done to forecast water surface elevation of the Tiber River at the Ripetta gauging station in Rome. In this study, a mathematical model called the TEVERE model was developed. “This model consists of a semi distributed rainfall-runoff model and a flood routing model (Calvo, 2008). Within the TEVERE model are two different mathematical models: the TEVERE BASIN model and the TEVERE RIVER model. The basin model is a hydrologic model which takes rainfall and transforms it into hourly runoff. The river model replicates the Tiber’s flood propagation from the Corbara lake to the Tyrrhenian Sea. To read more about the detail of these mathematical models, click here: https://link-springer-com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/article/10.1007/s11069-008-9312-9.
    ...
    Public Gatherings
    {Screen Shot 2017-09-16 at 2.37.45 PM.png} Figure 10: Summer Nights Along the Tevere
    Onecomment-620223833_3-openOne public project
    Art
    ...
    birthday along thecomment-620223833_4-openthe Tiber with
    {27Rome-web1-master675.jpg} Figure 11: Triumphs and Laments grand opening
    {IMG_2812.jpg} Figure 12: Triumphs and Laments in August 2017
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    Transportation
    Tiber Personal Rapid Transit
    Anothercomment-620223833_6-openAnother creative idea
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    along and enjoy.enjocomment-620223833_6-closey.
    Tiber Taxis
    ...
    were made. Whilecomment-620223833_7-openWhile the idea
    ...
    a true success.
    Comparison
    success.comment-620223833_7-close
    comment-620223833_8-openComparison
    with Rivers
    ...
    Other Major CitiesCitiescomment-620223833_8-close
    The Thames
    {p037srrg.jpg} Figure 14: Thames River
    Like the Tiber, London’s Thames River has undergone the typical mistreatment that rivers experience in big cities. For years it was polluted with sewage and waste, and by 1957 the river was proclaimed biologically dead by the Natural History Museum. This was partially caused by wartime bombings which destroyed some of London’s oldest sewers that had helped keep the river clean. Bacteria in the water that broke up sewage had used so much oxygen that it was very difficult for other life to be sustained in the river. In 1959 a member of the House of Lords was quoted as saying that cleaning up the river was unnecessary and that letting the Thames break up waste was giving it “something to do (Hardach, 2015).” Fortunately, this mindset changed.
    In the 1960s the river began to improve as London finally updated its sewer systems. In the 1970s and 1980s, environmental groups become concerned about the pesticides which washed into the river during rainfall. Charities like Thames21, who are dedicated to bettering the Thames and other waterways, helped implement stricter regulations to control the use of these chemicals. In the early 2000s pollution from toxic metals decreased in the Thames. This was in part because of increased industry regulations, but also due of changes in technology. For example, silver pollution decreased when the photography industry went digital. All these factors contributed to life returning to the Themes. Today there are 125 species of fish living in the river, compared to the almost none that lived there in 950 (Hardach, 2015).
    ...
    (Hardach, 2015).
    While
    While the Thames
    ...
    not sustainable.
    The Seine
    {Screen Shot 2017-09-15 at 12.13.47 AM.png} Figure 15: Attractions along the Seine River
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  4. page The Future of the Tiber River edited ... Pollution {Picture1.jpg} Figure 2: Trash piled up along the Tiber ... (Cerantola, 2014). …
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    Pollution
    {Picture1.jpg} Figure 2: Trash piled up along the Tiber
    ...
    (Cerantola, 2014).
    A Study on the Tiber River Quality in the Stretch of a Sewage Treatment Plant
    A 2006 study called the Tiber River Quality in the Stretch of a Sewage Treatment Plant: Effects of River Water or Disinfectants to Daphnia, delved into the greater effects of modern Rome’s pollution of the Tiber. In this study water samples were taken from three different sources in the river: upstream a sewage treatment plant (U), at the outfall of the sewage treatment plant (O), and downstream the sewage treatment plant (D). Daphnia magna, a small plankton crustacean, were cultured and exposed to the three different samples of Tiber river water. The Daphnia magna were also exposed to a variety of disinfectants used to treat discharging waters, including chlorine dioxide (ClO2), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), peracetic acid (PAA), sodium chlorite (NaClO2), and hydrochloric acid (HCl), that are used to treat sewage in the sewage treatment plant (Mancini, 2006).
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    12:58 am
  5. page The Future of the Tiber River edited ... Bureaucracy in Rome One of the major problems that affect the Tiber River is the massive amou…
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    Bureaucracy in Rome
    One of the major problems that affect the Tiber River is the massive amount of effort it takes to overcome the bureaucratic institutions that control it. The Tiber is a sort of administration no man’s land. Many different rules and regulations controlled by government agencies prevent people from easily making positive changes, even like simple clean-up projects. In order to do anything new with the Tiber, multiple bureaucratic institutions must be contacted. These institutions range from The Regione Lazio, one of the twenty regions in Italy responsible for the river and its banks, Autorita di Bacino del Fiume Tevere, which is the organization meant to be most responsible for drafting an environmental plan for the river, Protezione Civile, an organization that deals with hydraulic emergencies for the river, and La Polizia Fluviale which sends boats up and down stream to check water levels and embankment conditions. On top of all these organization, any intervention on the river entails multiple commissioners to be called in to express their opinions (Rankin, 2015).
    ...
    her stencils. {http://www.andrewginzel.com/kristin-jones/wp-content/uploads/2005/01/7_Front.jpg}
    {http://www.andrewginzel.com/kristin-jones/wp-content/uploads/2005/01/7_Front.jpg}
    Figure 8:
    Solutions for the Future
    Flood Predictions
    Throughout the ye
    ars,
    years, studies have
    ...
    its river
    and
    and how to
    ...
    study, a mathem
    atical
    mathematical model called
    ...
    2008). Within
    the
    the TEVERE model
    ...
    hydrologic model w
    hich
    which takes rainfall
    {Screen Shot 2017-09-29 at 1.49.25 PM.png} Figure 9: 2005 Flood in Rome - comparison between observed and forecasted water level
    In order to test this flood forecasting model, three historical Roman floods were considered. The most recent flood tested occurred in 2005, followed by the flood of 1984 and 1976. For all three floods the predicted water surface elevations at the Ripetta station were compared with the actual water surface elevation. Below is the results for the 2005 flood. While there was some variation between the observed and computed meters above sea level, the results were all acceptable and within a 90% confidence level (Calvo, 2008).
    (view changes)
    12:56 am

Monday, December 11

  1. page Disability Accessiblity in Modern Roman Transportation edited ... Rome, especially the historical center, has always been built for walking. The ancient city, f…
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    Rome, especially the historical center, has always been built for walking. The ancient city, founded long before the invention of automobiles, was designed to be not only easily navigable for pedestrians, but also included wide roads for transporting its goods and armies. The modern city center of Rome is densely woven, with public piazzas featuring beautiful old fountains in every neighborhood, and cafes and produce markets tucked around corners. The biggest tourist attractions are nearly all within a mile or so of each other, or about a half hour's walk. One can walk from the Colosseum to the Pantheon in under thirty minutes, and then from the Pantheon to the Trevi Fountain in another ten. Despite how walkable and easily navigable the city is, the streets are often laid with uneven cobblestone and many smaller streets do not even have sidewalks. For the physically unimpaired, these issues are often nothing but a slight inconvenience. Mothers and fathers pick up their children’s strollers at crosswalks, potholes and missing cobblestones are carefully avoided, and upon hearing the honk of a vehicle, pedestrians step quickly to the side. For the mobility impaired, the lack of safe, paved sidewalks and unending presence of cobblestones is not a simple inconvenience but a hazard, rendering much of Rome unwheelable.
    Most of the cobblestone, which is especially common in neighborhoods such as Trastevere, is made of black basalt stones called sampietrini. Sampietrini, meaning "St. Peter's stones," have been used to pave the streets since the 16th century. While the stones are quite strong and water permeable, they are also extremely slippery when wet, and become uneven over time due to settling. The individual stones are not held in place by concrete, but instead individually hammered into the sandbed of the street. The work is specialized, with very few people with the knowledge of how to pave using sampietrini. While larger, higher-speed roads have been paved over with asphalt, sampietrini are still used in neighborhoods with lower speed limits. On these smaller roads, the sampietrini are often uneven and missing stones in some places, creating haphazard potholes. In some places, a footpath is painted on the side of the street, but is not wide enough for a wheelchair to navigate, and drivers often park their cars over the footpath. As far as cost, a square meter of sampietrini costs about 200 euro, versus 50 euro for a square meter of asphalt (Zoccali, 2017). Acknowledging the high costs and pitfalls of sampietrini pavements, city officials have announced that they are planning to replace larger stretches of road with asphalt, limiting cobblestones to smaller pedestrian streets (Gagliardi, 2005).
    ...
    of surface. {sampietrini
    {sampietrini
    pothole.jpg} Figure
    {pedestrian sidewalk.jpg} Figure 5. Narrow marked footpath on sampietrini road. Uneven and too narrow to accomodate a wheelchair.
    {IMG_5976.JPG} Figure 6. A car parked over the pedestrian crosswalk.
    (view changes)
    12:32 pm
  2. comment Hadrian's testament to structural engineering comment reply fixed
    comment reply
    fixed
    9:43 am

Sunday, December 10

  1. page Trajan's column edited ... The column, standing ninety-eight feet alone and about one hundred and twenty-six feet with it…
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    The column, standing ninety-eight feet alone and about one hundred and twenty-six feet with its pedestal, is made entirely of Luna (also known as Carrara) marble. In total, there are twenty-nine Luna marble blocks weighing one thousand and one hundred tons. A bronze statue of Trajan is thought to have been atop the column when it was first erected; however, this piece of the monument was lost somewhere in the Middle Ages. On 4 December 1587, Pope Sixtus V crowned the column with a bronze statue of St. Peter, which remains to this day (see Figure 1). The foundation of the column consists of concrete and a cap of travertine, a common building material in Rome.
    {IMG_2161 (2).JPG} Figure 1 - The statue of St. Peter was put on top of Trajan's Column by Pope Sixtus V (Image taken by author at Trajan's Forum).
    ...
    an extremely heavingheavy structure. The
    ...
    the mining and cutting process (Image
    Retrieving the marble was a much lengthier process, considering the entirety of the column’s pedestal, shaft, viewing platform, and capital block is made of Luna marble from Carrara. Carrara, some one hundred and eighty-six miles from Rome, is a four hour transit to Rome today (see Figure 2) and a multi-week endeavor for ancient Rome. As with the travertine, massive amounts of work were done at the quarries to prepare the marble for transport. These large blocks of stone would have been moved using sledges rolling over thin round sticks or on animal drawn carts. For the long journey down to Rome, the marble was shipped along the Tyrrhenian coast to Portus, where they were then moved to river barges to be brought up the Tiber and into Rome. Then the blocks would be put back on carts and sledges to navigate them through the city and to the work site near the Forum. At this work site they would be carved so the greater detail of the frieze could be perfected, the spiral stair could be accurately measured, and excess weight could be shed before lifting was necessary. This work site would have been close to the north end of the Forum where Trajan’s Column sits so that there would be minimal transport required after carving.
    {IMG_2907.JPG} Figure 3 - The drive from Tivoli to Rome is less than an hour today (Image is a screenshot taken by the author from Google Maps). {IMG_2906.JPG} The drive today from Carrara to Rome is between a three and four hour drive (Image is a screenshot by the author from Google Maps).
    ...
    A full description of the frieze’s narrative, the Dacian Wars, is given later in this article. In short, the frieze depicts the events leading up to the war for expansion, certain battles sequences, victory, rebellion, the Roman army reentering Dacia, battles from the second Dacian War, final victory, and celebration. The incredibly detailed frieze also gives portrayals of the army doing every day chores and small events along the campaign. As a whole, it gives the story of epic battles but also the little daily events that make such a campaign possible. Trajan is the central protagonist of the narrative and the story revolves around him. One theory actually hypothesizes that the column was designed after the scrolls upon which Trajan wrote his account of the wars as a sort of diary. The scrolls were kept in the library right next to the column, so the proximity of a visual version would complement the library’s newest acquisition. In this sense, the marble carved frieze acts as one long comic strip telling the public a heroic story of their great leader.
    The actual engineering behind the frieze was an architectural innovation for the time, and was copied by numerous leaders after Trajan, notably Marcus Aurelius. Each scene was carved with great care and detail, and each block had to be lined up perfectly to make a cohesive story, while also maintaining a smooth spiral staircase inside. Calculations and placing had to be exact for every angle of every marble drum. Once the section of spiral staircase and frieze had been carved, the block would be ready for lifting.
    For a tour of the "unwrapped" frieze in the EUR museum in Rome, follow this link:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVWl8wkZBoI.

    {IMG_2149 (2).JPG} The frieze wraps around Trajan's Column twenty-three times and depicts scenes of Trajan's campaigns in Dacia (Image taken by the author in Trajan's Forum). {IMG_2154 (2).JPG} The frieze wraps around Trajan's Column twenty-three times and depicts scenes of Trajan's campaigns in Dacia (Image taken by the author in Trajan's Forum). {IMG_2157 (2).JPG} The frieze wraps around Trajan's Column twenty-three times and depicts scenes of Trajan's campaigns in Dacia (Image taken by the author in Trajan's Forum).
    Lifting the Blocks
    ...
    Reviewing some notes on rope from Pliny the Elder, Lancaster reviews the common use of hemp in Roman ropes. If the builders of Trajan’s Column had used a hemp rope similar to Fontana’s at 7.5 centimeters in diameter, each rope would have had a breaking load of thirty two tons. It would require eight such ropes and capstans to lift the fifty five ton base block. While a little under today’s safety factor of six, the ropes suggested would have been feasible and likely successful. Due to the great heights the workers would have had to lift the marble drums to, extremely long ropes at three hundred meters in a three-pulley system. The Romans would have to keep on constant watch and coil the excess rope diligently.
    History is rife with thievery and many treasures have been lost to it throughout the ages. An interesting example of this can be seen in Trajan’s Column. A “robber hole” shows a missing metal dowel that was taken from between two marble drums in the post-antique period. The metal dowels were placed to connect the blocks together by hammering holes into the lower surface of the upper block. Then the block with the dowels sticking out would be lowered so the dowels fit into holes on the upper surface of the lower block and the gaps between filled with molten lead. This lowering technique would have required a sledge to perfectly place the dowels and therefore a second lift for the sledge to be removed and a second set of pulleys to make this happen.
    ...
    Trajan’s Column. For a better idea of what a Lewis Iron looks like and does, follow this link:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_(lifting_appliance).

    Perhaps one of the most exciting stages of the construction project was the coordination of the lift for each marble block. Although there is no account of this process for Trajan’s Column, Fontana left a description of drama and tension with regards to the lifting process for his Vatican obelisk project. Exact coordination between every individual and animal involved in the lifting process was crucial, and in an age without electronic communication, silence was an absolute requirement for safety and success. For Fontana’s project, the spectators were watched by police with orders to punish noise with death. Without even distribution of load upon the ropes, excess strain in one spot could have severe consequences. Fontana had numerous checkpoints and failsafe mechanisms to isolate each capstan in case of emergency. For the average citizen in ancient Rome, the drama and excitement related to such an event must have been a rare experience.
    Using Fontana’s Vatican obelisk project, Apollodorus of Damascus’ siege plans, and Hero of Alexandria’s description of ancient Roman lifting towers, Lancaster weaves together a possible process for constructing a monument as ambitious as Trajan’s Column. While there is no certainty to the exact methods used at the time, known Roman practices would not have been up to the task. Analyzing varied methods for a number of different projects, Lancaster has shown that with the knowledge and materials available at the time, Trajan’s Column would have been an engineering innovation every step of the way.
    For an animated take on the construction of the Column that is similar to Lancaster's ideas, follow this link:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFUgaPlhDdM.

    Placement
    Trajan's Forum
    ...
    Today Trajan’s Column is the most prominent structure in Trajan’s Forum. Its great height makes following the frieze up the column difficult from the ground, and one wonders how Trajan expected passerby to read the story of his great deeds. Although there is no good vantage point to view the whole column today, when the column was first erected it stood upon the northernmost point of a fully intact Forum. Flanking the Column courtyard were the Basilica Ulpia and two libraries, one for scrolls in Latin and the other for scrolls in Greek. It is in one of these libraries where Trajan’s war diaries were kept. The combination of visual awe from the column and the great libraries caring for some of Rome’s literary treasurers were a credit to the emperor in the people’s eyes. One significant feature of the libraries was that they had viewing platforms from which the entire length of the column could be seen. With the shallow carving of the frieze, this helped viewers read the entire story. The setting of the column, libraries, and forum was a large hub for the Roman populace to gather. Trajan’s building contributions to the city are one of the many credits to his rule.
    Triumphal Columns
    ...
    students by Dr. Alison Roy, a UW history professor (STEVE HELP ME OUT ON HER NAME?),professor, unless otherwise
    According to the Continuum Encyclopedia of Symbols by Udo Becker, a column is a symbol for the connection between heaven and earth, and a free standing triumphal column symbolizes victory. A key aspect of power for a Roman emperor was to appear touched by the divine, the only one to have the gods’ approval to rule. They accomplished this image by choosing various gods to be descendants of; for example, Augustus himself claimed to be a descendant of Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty (Heckster). Building a column would further the people’s perception of a connection between victory on earth and a victory for the gods. Emperors would also add victory epithets to their titles, such as when Trajan conquered the Dacians and became “Dacicus Maximus,” or “greatest Dacian” (Becker, Jeffrey A.). Creating a lasting monument of this victory would remind citizens and visitors to the capital of the emperor’s title and success as their ruler.
    ...
    According to Professor X,Dr. Roy, a triumph
    ...
    bystander had benefittedbenefited from it.
    Trajan’s Column is the oldest surviving triumphal column, and inspired many more after it. Today there are numerous examples throughout the world of this kind of monument and its effects on the reputation of the man it was dedicated to. For historians, these columns are also important pieces of history that give a view into an area’s military past. For Rome, Trajan’s Column is one of its many historical treasures.
    Purpose of Trajan's Column
    ...
    Having traveled the known world and ruled for nineteen years, Trajan died with a successful legacy in 117 AD in Selinus (modern day Turkey), aged sixty-four. Known as a fair and generous ruler domestically and an ambitious conqueror internationally, Trajan left his adopted heir Hadrian much to maintain. While a great deal of Trajan’s rule is documented for historians, no military diary in antiquity is quite so vivid and intriguing as Trajan’s Column. A detailed story of war, the column gives a unique insight to the viewpoint of one of Rome’s greatest generals. Aside from its engineering prowess, the column is a monument to the life of a man more impressive than the two thousand years his most famous legacy has already withstood upon the earth.
    {IMG_2182 (2).JPG} Trajan's Column at sunset (Image taken by the author at Trajan's Forum).
    Author Perceptions
    Trajan's Column and Forum are in the heart of a thriving and modern city. The juxtaposition of the busy traffic center, the Altar of the Fatherland, and Trajan's Forum and Column is incredibly thought-provoking. Most of Rome houses sites from many periods of its history, but none is quite so jarring as the area surrounding the Column. Trajan's Column is a towering reminder of the ancient, the Altar of the Fatherland is a large (and according to locals, pompous) reminder of the 1920s, and the busy and seemingly life-threatening traffic next to both sites is a blaring presence of the modern era.
    The white surface of the column is a far cry from what some believe to have been an extremely colorful original face of the monument. Looking at the current Column it is fascinating to imagine how impressive and eye-catching a fully colored Column would be to an ancient populace.
    Summary
    Trajan's Column is an engineering marvel, work of art, rare military diary, and monument to one of history's great figures. In a city already rich with history, the Column stands out as a treasure worth studying and maintaining.

    References
    Becker, Jeffrey A. Column of Trajan.
    ...
    "Trajan." Encyclopedia Britannica.
    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Trajan
    UW PROFESSORDr. Alison Roy, UW History Professor.
    Wheeler, Everett L. "Rome's Dacian Wars: Domitian, Trajan, and Strategy on the Danube, Part 1."
    file:/C:/Users/Olivia/Downloads/Romans_Dacian_Wars_Domitian_Trajan_and_S.pdf
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